# Calculate Body Mass Index!!!

## BMI for Children…

For children and teens, overweight is defined differently than it is for adults. Children are still growing, and boys and girls develop at different rates. So, BMI for children 2 to 20 years old is determined by using a BMI chart that compares their weight and height along with growth charts. The growth charts use a child’s BMI, age, and sex to produce a BMI percentile.

A child’s BMI percentile shows how his or her BMI compares with other boys or girls of the same age. A child or teen that is between the 85th and 95th percentile on the growth chart is considered at risk of overweight. A child or teen that is at the 95th percentile or above is considered overweight. For children, BMI is used to screen for overweight, healthy weight, or underweight. For example, a child may have a high BMI for age and gender, but to determine if excess fat is a problem, a health care provider would need to perform further assessments.

A BMI percentile will not tell you if your child has or will get a disease. However, you should ask your family doctor, pediatrician, or other health care provider about your child’s BMI percentile and whether they are at risk for disease.

# Did you know you had a Body mass index???

Body mass index is a calculation that uses your height and weight to estimate how much body fat you have. Too much body fat is a problem because it can lead to illnesses and other health problems.

BMI, although not a perfect method for judging someone’s weight, is often a good way to check on how a kid is growing.

The best way to determine your BMI is to have your doctor do it for you. That way, you’ll know the number is accurate and your doctor can discuss the result with you and your mom or dad.

### Four Categories

Once you know your BMI, you’ll learn that you are in one of four categories:

1. Underweight: less than the 5th percentile
2. Healthy weight: greater than or equal to 5th but less than 85thpercentiles (in other words: 5th to 84th percentile)
3. Overweight: greater than or equal to 85th but less than 95thpercentiles (85th to 94th percentile)
4. Obese: greater than or equal to the 95th percentile

A kid whose BMI is at the 50th percentile is close to average compared with the kids of the same age and gender who were measured to make the chart. A kid at the 85th to 94th percentiles is considered overweight. And a kid who measures at or above the 95th percentile is considered obese, a term doctors use that means very overweight.

### How BMI Can Change

It’s important to remember that BMI is interpreted differently for adults. There are separate charts for men and women, but they don’t use percentiles at all — just number ranges that are considered underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese (which means very overweight). That’s because adults have stopped growing and their age is no longer a major consideration when it comes to weight.

Kids, on the other hand, are growing. And it’s common for kids to gain weight during certain times in childhood, such as puberty. The charts take growth into account.

The following example shows that in action: Here’s a look at a boy as he grows yet stays in the 50th percentile for BMI, which means he’s average. Notice that his BMI goes up and down, but he continues to stay at the same percentile.

 Age BMI Percentile 2 years 16.5 50th 4 years 15.8 50th 8 years 16.0 50th 12 years 17.5 50th

### Where BMI Can Fall Short

BMI is not the whole story when it comes to someone’s weight. A more muscular kid might have a higher weight and BMI but not have too much body fat. A smaller kid could have an ideal BMI, but might have less muscle and too much body fat.

Also, it’s very common for kids to gain weight quickly — and see the BMI go up — during puberty. Because of these and other considerations, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor if you have questions about whether you are at your ideal weight.

If your doctor tells you your BMI is high, don’t let it get you down. Instead, talk to your doctor about what you should do to lower your BMI. Unlike adults, kids don’t usually need to diet. But by eating healthier and getting more exercise, a kid can improve his or her BMI.

Controlling a weight problem while you’re still a kid can help you avoid becoming an overweight adult and developing health problems like diabetes and heart disease. With a little effort, your BMI will be JWIOTB — just where it ought to be!

# Growth Charts!!!

Look at any class picture, and you’ll see kids of the same age in all shapes and sizes. Some kids look tiny next to their peers, while others literally stand head and shoulders above their classmates.

As easy as it is to make these comparisons and to draw conclusions about what you see, the reality is that kids grow at their own pace. Big, small, tall, short — there is a wide range of healthy shapes and sizes among children.

Genetics, gender, nutrition, physical activity, health problems, environment, hormones, and lifestyle factors like nutrition and physical activity all influence a child’s height and weight. And many of these factors can vary widely from family to family.

So how does a doctor figure out whether a child’s height and weight measurements are “normal”? Whether he or she is developing on track? Whether any health problems are affecting growth?

A doctor uses growth charts to help answer those questions. Here are some facts about growth charts and what they say about a child’s health.

### Why Do Doctors Use Growth Charts?

Growth charts are a standard part of any checkup, and they show health care providers how kids are growing compared with other kids of the same age and gender. They also allow doctors and nurses to see the pattern of kids’ height and weight gain over time, and whether they’re developing proportionately.

Let’s say a child was growing along the same pattern until he was 2 years old, then suddenly started growing at a much slower rate than other kids. That might indicate a health problem. Doctors could see that by looking at a growth chart.

### If a Growth Chart Shows a Different Pattern, Is There a Problem?

Not necessarily. The doctor will interpret the growth charts in the context of the child’s overall well-being, environment, and genetic background. Is the child meeting other developmental milestones? Are there other signs that a child is not healthy? How tall or heavy are the child’s parents and siblings?  These are all factors that the doctor will use to help understand the numbers on the growth chart.

### Are All Kids Measured on One Growth Chart?

No. Girls and boys are measured on different growth charts because they grow in different patterns and at different rates.

And one set of charts is used for babies, from birth to 36 months. Another set of charts is used for kids ages 2 to 20 years old.

### What Measurements Are Put on Growth Charts?

Up until the time babies are 36 months old, doctors measure weight, length, and head circumference.

With older kids, doctors measure weight, height, and body mass index (BMI). It’s important to look at and compare weight and height measurements to get a full picture of a child’s growth.

# Risk factors for childhood obesity!!!

## Your body stores unused energy (kilojoules) as body fat. To maintain a healthy weight, you need to use (or ‘burn’) the energy from the foods you eat. If you eat more than you use, your body will store the extra energy as fat.

Factors that may cause children to become overweight and obese include:

• Food choices – such as choosing high fat and sugary foods instead of healthier options.
• Lack of physical activity –Indian  children are less active than they were in the past.
• Spending a lot of time on sedentary pursuits – Indian children watch, on average, around 2½ hours of television a day, as well as spending time using computers and other electronic games. It seems that these pastimes are replacing active ones.
• Genetics – some rare gene disorders cause severe childhood obesity. In many other people, particular genes acting together probably make some children more susceptible to obesity. If there is a family tendency to become overweight, parents need to be even more aware of making healthy food choices for the whole family.

# Cause of obesity in children

More children are becoming overweight and obese. Causes of obesity in children include unhealthy food choices, lack of physical activity and family eating habits. Weight gain occurs when you eat more calories than your body uses up. If the food you eat provides more calories than your body needs, the excess is converted to fat. Initially, fat cells increase in size. When they can no longer expand, they increase in number. If you lose weight, the size of the fat cells decreases, but the number of cells does not.The rise in the number of overweight children is disturbing because it causes health problems and can lead to social problems. Overweight children are more likely to be teased by their peers or to develop low self-esteem or body image problems. Once children are overweight, it requires a lot of effort and commitment for them to return to a healthy weight.

Overweight and obesity in children are among the most important risks to children’s long and short-term health. Overweight children are very likely to become overweight adults.

# What is Childhood Obesity ?

Obesity means an excess amount of body fat. No general agreement exists on the lowest definition of obesity in children and adolescents, unlike standards for adults. Nevertheless, most professionals accept published guidelines based on the body mass index (BMI) — modified for age, pubertal stage, and gender — to measure obesity in children and adolescents. Others define pediatric obesity as body weight at least 20% higher than the healthy weight range for a child or adolescent of that height, or as a body fat percentage above 25% in boys or above 32% in girls.Although rare in the past, obesity is now among the most widespread medical problems affecting children and adolescents

# First Aid for scrapes or cuts!!!

When  child scrapes or cuts herself, the bleeding will stop quickly. Although the amount of bleeding may seem like a lot, most minor wounds do not result in major blood loss or complications. However, if the bleeding does not stop, you will have to act quickly to prevent too much blood loss.

## Treatment

### Rest

When treating any type of wound, minor or severe, have your child rest. Encourage her to sit or lie down.

### Elevate

Be sure to raise the wounded area above her heart. This will reduce the amount of blood flowing to the wound. If the wound is dirty, you can rinse it gently with clean, cool, or warm tap water. Do not use hot water. You can also use bottled water or a saline wound spray to clean the wound. Do not use a iodine, mercurochrome, hydrogen peroxide, or other similar agents to clean the wound. These solutions will cause pain and/or irritation.

### Direct pressure

Take sterile gauze or a clean cloth and press firmly on the wound to stop the bleeding. When the bleeding has slowed or stopped, secure the dressing with tape or a safety pin.

If your child is showing any sign of shock, call 9-1-1 right away.

### Embedded Object

If an object is embedded, or stuck in your child’s body, do not take it out. Pulling it out could cause the bleeding to worsen. Instead, protect and cover the area with sterile gauze. Make sure to not push the object deeper into the wound. Be sure to clean your hands, or wear disposable gloves, to reduce the risk of infection. Wrap bandage rolls over the wound. Secure the bandage rolls above and below the wound. Seek medical attention right away to have the object removed and the wound cared for.